Vulnerability Assessment Ha Tinh

As part of applying the Vulnerability Assessment for Socio-Ecological Systems (VASES) approach in Ha Tinh province, vulnerability assessments for ecosystem-based adaptation were conducted at both macro and micro levels, and based on their findings, ecosystem-based adaptation measures could be identified as stand-alone responses or complementary sets of possibilities for hardware-based/infrastructure-based measures to climate change adaptation.

The main objectives of the vulnerability assessment were to analyse all components of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity); to provide data and recommendations for decision-making on introducing the EbA concept into provincial policies and planning processes; and to provide recommendations for first practical EbA measures in selected ecosystems on the ground.

Macro level (or provincial level) assessment is a top-down approach that involves the comprehensive, province-wide study of socio-economic and ecological systems in the context of climate change. It includes different steps varying from scoping the context of climate change, identifying socio-ecological systems and key economic assets, vulnerability assessments of socio-ecological systems and key economic assets, and finally singling out EbA options and other adaptation options at provincial level. Among others, the provincial level vulnerability assessment  helps to point out prioritized socio-ecological systems for further study at village level.

Go to macro level vulnerability assessment reports

Micro level (or village level) assessment is a bottom-up approach that is carried out at one or several selected socio-ecological systems, using participatory tools.

A similar approach as indicated in the provincial VA study is applied for this village level VA study.

Participatory planning is carried out to identify site-specific EbA solutions to respond to climate change impacts.

Go to micro level vulnerability assessment

In the section below, brief introductions to the ecological, social, economic, socio-ecological and climatic profiles that were created as part of the macro level VA in Ha Tinh are provided. These profiles constitute a major part of the vulnerability assessment report of the province.

Most of the profiles are based on data from a site that was visited during a scoping mission, and was selected due to its high vulnerability scores.

To download the full province-level vulnerability assessment report for Ha Tinh, please click here

Provincial Level Vulnerability Assessment Ha Tinh – The Profiles

1. Social profile

This Ha Tinh social profile focused in its analysis on people, asking which groups are most vulnerable and why, based on an understanding of vulnerability as:

“The state of individuals, groups or communities in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. It is determined by

  1. The availability of resources and; crucially,
  2. By the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources.” (Adger and Kelly 1999)

For this the key social data relating to climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation were mapped at the provincial level in Ha Tinh: population, vulnerable groups, poverty and livelihoods.

It also examines the social dimensions of EbA in Ha Tinh, including the contextual information at the provincial level that any provincial department should keep in mind when analysing and planning for CCA or EbA.

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2. Ecological profile

This profile focuses on the ecosystems of Ha Tinh, asking which types of ecosystems are present, how much of them is there, and what condition they are in, which may be a critical point when it comes tosupporting livelihoods and the economy in the face of climate change.

Furthermore, the vulnerability of the ecosystems themselves was assessed for this profile, as well.

The present profile examines the ecological dimensions of EbA in Ha Tinh, including the contextual information at the provincial level that any provincial department should keep in mind when analysing and planning for CCA or EbA. It also examines the key parameters used in this study to develop and describe the Socio-Ecological Systems (SES).

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3. Economic profile

The objective of the macro-level economic scoping exercise for the EbA vulnerability assessment is to identity the most important economic activities and assets at provincial level that need to be considered. This economic profile of Ha Tinh identifies the main sectors of the provincial economy considering a variety of aspects, including contribution to GDP, employment generated, future development directionas well as dependence on natural resources, linked to climate change. Like the social and ecological profiles, the economic profile is also based on existing data made available to the study by the different departments of the provincial government. The three of them together are used to identify the Socio-Ecological Systems (SES) found in the province. These SESs then form the basis for the climate change impact assessment.

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4. Socio-ecological systems profile

To understand the issues and threats posed by climate change, and to devise practical and sustainable solutions, ecological, social and economic factors need to be considered together.  Thus, as described above, the most important unit of analysis for this vulnerability assessment is the Socio-Ecological System (SES).

This chapter presents the methods and outcomes of the work on SESs carried out under the provincial-level assessment for EbA in Ha Tinh province.  Four main steps were involved, namely:

  • The identification of SESs
  • The mapping of SESs
  • The prioritisation of SESs
  • Profiling of SESs
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5. Climate and climate-related disaster profile

This profile provides background climatic data on Ha Tinh, as a prelude to the climate change scenarios and vulnerability assessments in the following profiles. The account begins with an overview of Ha Tinh’s climate data, followed by a description of the province’s present climatic conditions and an account of the province’s history of climate-related disasters and their economic costs. Ha Tinh has long experienced a range of climatic disasters, including storms, droughts, dry hot westerly winds, heavy rains and floods, having great impact economically and socially on the province and its people.

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6. Climate change impacts on Ha Tinh

This profile presents an overview of the three scenarios developed for Ha Tinh province and reviews some general impacts anticipated on natural ecosystems, agriculture forestry and fisheries, settlements and infrastructure. It also introduces a set of climate change parameters used in scenario development for EbA vulnerability assessments and the rationale for their selection.

It must be noted, however, that it is beyond the scope of this study to provide a detailed review of the literature on the impacts of climate change on all the relevant ecosystems, natural resource based activities, and urban environments/infrastructure. The local-level vulnerability assessments will examine impacts in more detail.

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7. Adaptive capacity

The profile presents an overview of the adaptive capacity at the provincial level in Ha Tinh. The study includes a brief overview of policy and related literature, and semi-structured interviews with a number of key informants, principally in DARD and DONRE.

The profile begins with a brief review of key concepts relating to adaptive capacity.  The next section outlines the approach to adaptive capacity taken in provincial- and local-level studies of this vulnerability assessment. The profile ends with a brief discussion, conclusions and recommendations.

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8. Overall vulnerability and EbA recommendations

The final chapter presents overall vulnerability at the provincial level, including examples of vulnerabilities of some specific SESs. It then goes on to present recommendations for targeted EbA interventions – some broadly applicable across the province or across different sectors, and some more specific to each SES.

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Village Level Vulnerability Assessment Ha Tinh

In Ha Tinh province, Village 1, Son Hong commune was chosen for micro level analysis and assessment. The commune and village are prone to impacts of climate change and extreme weather. Simultaneously however, ecosystems of this commune are still healthy enough to be able to provide EbA options that involve diverse and typical livelihood activities of the province (work in coastal areas, shifting cultivation areas, and forest product collection), despite being strongly affected by the negative impacts of climate change.

As part of the village level vulnerability assessment, particular attention was also paid to the role of gender in identifying vulnerabilities and selecting suitable EbA measures as a response. Below, you can find a brief overview study of assessments of ecosystems-based vulnerabilities and adaptation options from a gender perspective.

To download the factsheet on gender perspectives in VA and EbA selection, please click here